How to prolong the youth of the skin and slow down the aging process

facial skin at different ages

Slowing down the aging process of the skin is the fundamental problem of cosmetology. Until recently, it was believed that the skin began to age in the 40s, when the first pronounced wrinkles appear. And cosmetics mainly fought against wrinkles. Now, it is quite obvious that the aging process of the skin begins long before the appearance of visible signs and begins at the cellular level for about thirty years. Currently, researchers have a large amount of biomedical scientific knowledge about the structure and functioning of the skin, oxidative stress and its causes, the intracellular mechanisms of adaptation and repair, the quality and intensity of intercellular interactions.

It is accepted for today,that skin aging is not just about visible signs: wrinkles, uneven pigmentation, gravitational sagging of the skin, dryness, etc. First of all, these are cellular and tissue signs of skin aging, changes in the subtle processes that occur in the epidermis and dermis.

The mechanisms of aging affect the most important cellular organelles:

  • DNA- the most important element of storage and implementation of hereditary information;
  • mitochondria- a unique organelle to provide energy to the cell and ensure its survival in difficult conditions;
  • cellular membrane- regulator of the transmission of signals from the outside and selective permeability of substances.

With any external influence on the skin, complex processes are initiated in the skin cells: they exchange information and coordinate a joint response to external challenges. These processes are very active in youth. But with age, they fade, a certain imbalance of internal processes occurs, and the skin begins to age. This raises the question of how to help the skin effectively resist aging in youth, maturity and old age.

All the theories that describe the mechanisms of skin aging, and there are more than 300, can be divided into two large groups: aging based on internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) factors. Endogenous aging is caused by information encoded in our DNA and there is still no way to influence this aspect. Exogenous aging is the total result of the cumulative effect of aggressive environmental factors, such as ultraviolet and infrared radiation, ozone from urban smog, cigarette smoke, etc. A notable change in the study of aging processes due to external factors occurred at the beginning of the 20th and 21st centuries. Now, no one doubts that external factors determine 60-80% of the total volume of aging (data for facial skin). The ultraviolet is recognized as the most dangerous.

Signs of skin aging in numbers

Age-related changes often appear externally and signs of skin aging may be noted. Here is a list of the most common skin changes and their appearance. Research in recent years has made it possible to calculate many of the aging processes in numbers.

  • The collagen content in the dermis, necessary to ensure the strength of the skin, drops 1% every year after the age of 30.
  • After 40 years, the skin becomes thinner by 1% per year.
  • A skin cell restores 10 to 100, 000 DNA mutations in a day, and 2 hours of sun exposure provides up to 1 million mutations.
  • 15 minutes of sun exposure depletes the skin's own antioxidant reserves (mainly vitamins C and E) by 70-90%, which requires at least 2 hours to recover.
  • Of all the protein that is synthesized in the cell, 40% is produced with errors, an uninterrupted functioning of the cellular mechanisms is required for its use and processing.
  • In total, the body contains about 15 g of hyaluronic acid, of which 10 g falls on the skin. A complete renewal of all the hyaluronic acid in the body occurs in three (! ) Days: any failure in the work of the skin cells for the synthesis of hyaluronic acid becomes a micro-catastrophe for the skin.
  • Decreased elasticity of the stratum corneum and epidermis. With age, the stratum corneum becomes thicker, and the upper layer, on the contrary, becomes thinner (from 30 to 70 years, twice). The firmness of the skin decreases and the skin becomes dull.
  • Reduce the amount of water in the stratum corneum. With age, the amount of water in the skin changes: 75-70% up to 25 years old, up to 63-65% in older people. The skin becomes dry, less dense and the sensitivity of the skin increases.
  • Increase in skin pigmentation. Over time, due to the negative effects of the sun, age spots appear on the skin.
  • With age, the activity of the sebaceous glands decreases. As a result, the skin becomes drier and more vulnerable to free radicals.
age-related skin changes

The main reason for aging skin is a decrease in the rate of repair.

All skin functions and regenerative processes are preserved in humans even in extreme old age. The problem is that your speed is slowing down. If young skin is able to react to a negative impulse and stop its adverse effects in 12 hours, older skin already needs 30 hours. Thus, it is obvious that in an older person, the recovery processes are extremely slow. In other words, the intact skin of a young and old is equally effective as a barrier and protection. The differences become noticeable when the skin is damaged and the need to restore the destroyed structures and mechanisms. Taking into account that our skin is in conditions of continuous aggression from external factors, then the older the age, the more intensely the snowball of destruction and "untreated" damage grows. That is, mature skin does not have time to deal with damage, and they accumulate and appear as external signs of aging. In other words, all signs of aging are "untreated" skin lesions.

Stages of age-related changes in the skin and care characteristics.

Young skin is differenthigh content of its own "youth molecules", high intensity of recovery processes. Young skin is much denser than mature skin, it is more elastic, its structural fibers, collagen and elastin, are neat. The cell turnover rate is approximately 28 days. The first age-related skin changes begin to occur from the age of 25. Therefore, the main focus in cosmetics of this age group is protection and prevention. It includes protection against ultraviolet radiation, support of the water and lipid balance in the skin, the mandatory use of various antioxidants.

Mature skin is differenta decrease in the content of "youth molecules" and a slowdown in recovery processes. Everyday stress becomes more traumatic and destructive to the skin. Signs of skin aging begin to appear externally in the form of wrinkles, crow's feet around the eyes, sagging skin on the cheekbones and chin. Here anti-aging cosmetics must provide not only protection, but also support for their own processes (protection and maintenance cosmetics). The use of substances to maintain cell life (protection of cell membranes, DNA and mitochondria), enhances the synthesis of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid is topical. It is required to strengthen and maintain a high intensity of intercellular communication with the help of regulatory peptides and growth factors.

In old agemassive deficit of recovery mechanisms. The renewal rate of skin cells after 55 years is considerably reduced and is already 3-4 months (28 days before 25 years). This occurs in an unfavorable context of already accumulated "untreated" injuries. The signs of skin aging become more pronounced: the number and depth of wrinkles increase, the skin becomes drier and dull. The anti-aging cosmetics of this era are protection, support and replacement of the lost. Active substances from both older age groups and their own can be used: bioflavonoids with phytoestrogenic activity (to replace the level of their own estrogens), cholesterol in a special ratio with ceramides and fatty acids to replenish the lipid barrier, intradermal moisturizers, anti-inflammatory components and vascular stabilizers.

Each one of us is different. However, the processes that take place on our skin are determined by nature in the same way for everyone. Including the aging process of the skin. At each age, the degree of manifestation of certain changes is different. Take a closer look at yourself. You may notice some changes today. It is time to act! It is important to select beauty care products according to the age and needs of the skin at each stage of life.

Skincare products and specialized treatments will help slow the aging process of your skin and keep it looking youthful for many years. In the wide variety of cosmetics and procedures that exist today, women of any age group can choose the right anti-aging products for them.